HOW TO DECORATE TALL WALLS - DECORATE TALL WALLS
How To Decorate Tall Walls - French Garden Decor - Decorating Ideas For A Master Bedroom
How To Decorate Tall Walls
- Make (something) look more attractive by adding ornament to it
- make more attractive by adding ornament, colour, etc.; "Decorate the room for the party"; "beautify yourself for the special day"
- Provide (a room or building) with a color scheme, paint, wallpaper, etc
- Confer an award or medal on (a member of the armed forces)
- deck: be beautiful to look at; "Flowers adorned the tables everywhere"
- Practical advice on a particular subject; that gives advice or instruction on a particular topic
- (How To’s) Multi-Speed Animations
- A how-to or a how to is an informal, often short, description of how to accomplish some specific task. A how-to is usually meant to help non-experts, may leave out details that are only important to experts, and may also be greatly simplified from an overall discussion of the topic.
- Providing detailed and practical advice
- A continuous vertical brick or stone structure that encloses or divides an area of land
- (wall) anything that suggests a wall in structure or function or effect; "a wall of water"; "a wall of smoke"; "a wall of prejudice"; "negotiations ran into a brick wall"
- (wall) an architectural partition with a height and length greater than its thickness; used to divide or enclose an area or to support another structure; "the south wall had a small window"; "the walls were covered with pictures"
- (wall) surround with a wall in order to fortify
- Any high vertical surface or facade, esp. one that is imposing in scale
- A side of a building or room, typically forming part of the building's structure
- Of great or more than average height, esp. (with reference to an object) relative to width
- (after a measurement and in questions) Measuring a specified distance from top to bottom
- Used in reference to proud and confident movement or behavior
- a garment size for a tall person
- great in vertical dimension; high in stature; "tall people"; "tall buildings"; "tall trees"; "tall ships"
- grandiloquent: lofty in style; "he engages in so much tall talk, one never really realizes what he is saying"
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Chan Chan - Inside a palace
The city of Chan Chan, capital of the Kingdom of Chimor, also known as the Chimu Empire, represents America's largest prehispanic mud-brick settlement. Its complexity has come to light only after years of intensive excavations. This large city covers 7.7 square miles and is centered on a 2.3 square mile urban core dominated by a series of huge enclosures - the palaces of the Chimu kings.
The origins of the city go back to the beginnings of the first millennium AD when the first large enclosure, probably the Ciudadela Chayhuac, or Chayhuac Citadel, was built. Subsequently, many more ciudadelas, eleven in total. By the time the Inca conquered the Chimu domain, around 1470 AD, the capital was the center of an empire that covered a stretch of 621 miles of the Pacific coast and controlled about two-thirds of all agricultural land ever irrigated along the Pacific coast of South America.
Agriculture was a major concern of the Chimu, who built many miles of irrigation canals, including inter-valley canals, to expand the area under cultivation. A long canal was built from the Chicama River to the north, in order to irrigate farmland near Chan Chan in the Moche Valley. The enormous area harvested in the Moche Valley in prehispanic times still surpasses the area currently cultivated.
The archaeological site is characterized by very tall walls, some of which are 26 feet high, which enclose each of the 11 citadels. Together with Huaca Obispo, Chan Chan's largest stepped pyramid, which lies at the north of the city, they form the bulk of the monumental architecture at the site. Each of these palaces, most of which are laid out in a very similar fashion in spite of the differences in size, are characterized by three types of structures: U-shaped audiencias, storerooms and wells. In general terms the site’s high walls, long corridors, tortuous, winding passageways, and small entrances show how meticulously the regime controlled the flow of people within the enclosures.
The U-shaped rooms called "audiencias" are found in varying sizes and are interpreted as the administrative offices of the Chimu elite. Some are decorated with elaborate clay friezes that represent shellfish, stylized waves, marine birds and fish. On frieze, for example, represents a reed boat adorned with a cormorant and a giant squid about to gobble a fish.
The extensive storerooms, which have a capacity of 2,000 square meters, were found empty. Archaeologists, however, were able to find traces of manufactured goods, including the imprints of textiles, for instance, which probably were stored in these rooms until their removal around the time of the Inca conquest. The value attached to the items stored here is apparent by the controlling position of the audiencia-type building that one must pass in order to access them.
If the capacity of the Chan Chan storerooms is examined, it becomes evident that, unlike the Inca, they did not store huge amounts of staples; the available storage space is far smaller in comparison. On the contrary, they appear to have specialized in producing and trading small, but valuable, luxury goods possibly used as status symbols by distant lords. lt is quite possible that the marine scenes depicted on audiencia walls are linked not only to the realm of myth and ideology, but also to seafaring, a practice probably engaged in daily by Chimu fishermen and traders.
Another recurrent feature of the ciudadelas of Chan Chan is large, deep, walk-in-wells. Today these have dried out completely due to the lower water table, which has led, in turn to a smaller area currently under irrigation and modern-day water extraction with mechanized pumps to supply the expanding city of Trujillo. This lowering of the natural water table has also desertified the ”sunken gardens", where the produce consumed by the inhabitants of Chan Chan was grown. By digging large, deep trenches until the surface was moist enough to sustain agriculture, the agricultural frontier could be further expanded into areas near the coastline, like the area southeast of Chan Chan. A similar method is used by some traditional fishermen of the north coast of Peru to grow the totora reeds necessary for making their famous, slender reed boats.
Some scholars have tended to link the individual compounds with a list of rulers written down by Spanish historians in the sixteenth century. Others however, stress the possibility that all ciudadelas functioned at the same time, with competing nobles and their families living in each one of them.
Evidence in favor of the "one king - one palace" theory carne from the excavation of several highly disturbed platforms found within the citadel enclosures. Clearing the debris left by intensive colonial looting, or "mining" as it was referred to then, a T- shaped tomb was found to have been at the center of the burial platforms. The people buried in these enormous tombs were accompanied in the grave
Financial District, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
The 15-story Beaver Building, designed in the neo-Renaissance style by the well-known and prolific firm of Clinton & Russell and built in 1903-04, was commissioned by the Century Realty Co. as a speculative office building. The steel-framed, flatiron-shaped structure occupies a narrow quadrilateral lot at the juncture of Beaver and Pearl Streets near Wall Street. The design has the tripartite arrangement of base-shaft-capital common to many of New York's early skyscrapers, with a stone base, a midsection faced in brick laid in bands of tan and buff shades, and a top section richly ornamented with glazed terra cotta in shades of green, cream, and russet, incorporating both classically-derived and abstract geometric motifs. The Beaver Building is a notable example of the design solution for turn-of-the-century New York skyscrapers in which each section of the tripartite scheme is differentiated by color and materials. It is also a very early example of the use of boldly polychromatic glazed terra cotta, as well as a significant survivor of this period of terra cotta development. Carved ornament depicting beavers, representing the name of the building, is found over the Beaver Street entrance and below the primary cornice of the base. The building was the headquarters from 1904 until 1921 of the Munson Steamship Co., a prominent shipping line active in the Cuban and South American sugar and lumber trade; the company owned the building from 1919 to 1937. From 1931 to 1972, one of the building's primary tenants was the New York Cocoa Exchange, the world's first and foremost cocoa futures market, amidst the United States' emergence as the world's largest cocoa consumer. Despite some alterations in the 1980s, the Beaver Building remains a notable example of a medium-height, turn-of-the-century skyscraper on the narrow streets of lower Manhattan.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
The New York Skyscraper his architectural training in the office of Richard
During the nineteenth century, commercial buildings in New York City developed from four-story structures modeled on Italian Renaissance palazzi to much taller skyscrapers. Made possible by technological advances, tall buildings challenged designers to fashion an appropriate architectural expression. Between 1870 and 1890, nine- and ten-story buildings transformed the streetscapes of lower Manhattan between Bowling Green and City Hall. During the building boom following the Civil War, building envelopes continued to be articulated largely according to traditional palazzo compositions, with mansarded and towered roof profiles. New York's tallest buildings — the seven-and-a-half-story Equitable Life Assurance Co. Building (1868-70, Gilman & Kendall and George B. Post) at Broadway and Cedar Street, the ten-story Western Union Building (1872-75, George B. Post) at Broadway and Liberty Street, and the ten-story Tribune Building (1873-75, Richard M. Hunt) on Park Row, all now demolished — incorporated passenger elevators, iron floor beams, and fireproof building materials. Beginning in the later 1870s, tall buildings were characterized by flat roofs and a free, varied grouping of stories, often in the form of multi-storied arcades, within the facades. Ever taller skyscrapers were permitted by the increasing use and refinement of metal framing. In 1888-89 New York architect Bradford Lee Gilbert used steel skeleton framing for the first seven stories of the eleven-story Tower Building at 50 Broadway (demolished). Beginning around 1890, architects began producing skyscraper designs that adhered to the tripartitebase-shaft-capital arrangement associated with the classical column, a scheme that became commonly employed in New York. The technology of steel framing, often used in conjunction with caisson foundations, advanced further during the 1890s, pioneered by engineers and by architects Francis H. Kimball and Bruce Price. This technology allowed for the construction of tall buildings on relatively small, awkwardly shaped sites, like that of the Beaver Building, designed by the firm of Clinton & Russell.
The well-known and prolific firm of Clinton & Russell, formed in 1894, was responsible for scores of buildings in New York City at the turn of the century, including many early downtown skyscrapers, notable luxury apartment houses and fashionable hotels, and institutions, often designed according to Italian Renaissance prototypes. Charles William Clinton (1838-1910), born and raised in New York, received Upjohn, until he left in 1858 to begin an independent practice. The following year, he formed a partnership with Anthony B. McDonald, Jr., which lasted until 1862; he was later associated with Edward T. Potter. For the next 32 years Clinton practiced alone; aside from the Seventh Regiment Armory (1877-81), 643 Park Avenue, most of his important buildings during
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